- Sharps, D., & Schroeder, J. (in press). The preference for distributed helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Short Summary: This paper investigates the psychology underlying how people decide to allocate help (e.g., donations) among multiple needy requesters, and documents a preference for distribution (allocating help to multiple requesters) compared to concentration (allocating help to a single requester) (9 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., Risen, J. L., Gino, F., & Norton, M. I. (2018). Handshaking promotes deal-making by signaling cooperative intent. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Short Summary: In the context of economic games and integrative and distributive negotiations, handshakes--which are ritualistic behaviors imbued with meaning beyond mere physical contact--signal a counterpart's intent to be cooperative and promote deal-making outcomes (7 studies).
- Tian, D., Schroeder, J., Haubl, G., Risen, J. L., Norton, M. I., & Gino, F. (2018). Enacting rituals to improve self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 851-876.
- Short Summary: Enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control (6 experiments, 11 more experiments described in Supplemental Materials).
- Schroeder, J., Kardas, M., & Epley, N. (2017). The humanizing voice: Speech reveals, and text conceals, a more thoughtful mind in the midst of disagreement. Psychological Science, 28, 1745-1762.
- Short Summary: Disagreement on important political issues can incite dehumanization; hearing opposing opinions (vs. reading them) can reduce dehumanizing judgments of the opposition (4 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., Fishbach, A., Schein, C., & Gray, K. (2017). Functional intimacy: Needingóbut not wantingóthe touch of a stranger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 910-924.
- Short Summary: When intimacy is functional (i.e., for the purpose of achieving a non-relational goal), it leads recipients to prefer social distance from the service provider (7 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2017). Endorsing help for others that you oppose for yourself: Mind perception alters the perceived effectiveness of paternalism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146, 1106-1125.
- Short Summary: Believing a person has less mental capacity makes givers expect paternalism will be a more effective method of helping the person (9 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2016). Mistaking minds and machines: How speech affects dehumanization and anthropomorphism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 1427-1437.
- Short Summary: Hearing a human speech (compared to reading the same words in text or watching a human communicator with subtitles) makes evaluators more likely to believe a script was created by a human (vs. computer) regardless of whether it actually was created by a human (4 experiments).
- Brooks, A. W., Schroeder, J., Risen, J. L., Gino, F., Galinsky, A., Norton, M. I., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2016). Don't stop believing: Rituals improve performance by decreasing anxiety. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 137, 71-85.
- Short Summary: Individuals in high-anxiety performance situations who complete pre-performance rituals (versus random gestures, trying to calm down, or sitting in silence) feel less anxiety and may perform better (5 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., Caruso, E., & Epley, N. (2016). Many hands make overlooked work: Overclaiming of responsibility increases with group size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 238-246.
- Short Summary: Overclaiming (when group members' contribution claims sum to more than 100%) increases as the group size increases because people fail to sufficiently consider their group members' contributions (4 studies).
- Schroeder, J., & Risen, J. L. (2016). Befriending the enemy: Outgroup friendship longitudinally predicts intergroup attitudes in a co-existence program for Israelis and Palestinians. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19, 72-93.
- Short Summary: Outgroup relationships longitudinally and bidirectionally predict intergroup attitude change in a co-existance camp among Israeli and Palestinian teenagers (3 years of data collection).
- Schroeder, J., & Fishbach, A. (2015). The "empty vessel" physician: Physicians' instrumentality makes them seem personally empty. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 940-949.
- Short Summary: Individuals who have more need for medical care focus more on physicians' traits relevant to their needs, perceiving physicians as more competent and failing to notice their personal emotions (6 experiments).
- Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2015). The sound of intellect: Speech reveals a thoughtful mind, increasing a job candidate's appeal. Psychological Science, 26, 877-891.
- Short Summary: People evaluate job candidates' mental capacities more highly when they hear their "elevator pitches" than when they read them, and are more interested in hiring them (4 experiments).
- Epley, N., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Mistakenly seeking solitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1980-1999.
- Short Summary: People prefer to sit in solitude in public settings (on buses, trains, cabs, and in waiting rooms) than to talk to a stranger, but when randomly assigned to talk to a stranger on these same settings, report greater happiness and no less productivity compared to sitting in silence or doing what they want (10 experiments).
- Rios, K., Markman, K. D., Schroeder, J., & Dyczewski, E. A. (2014). A (creative) portrait of the uncertain individual: Self-uncertainty and individualism enhance creative generation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1050-1062.
- Short Summary: Self-uncertainty, relative to uncertainty in general, increases creative generation among individualists (5 studies).
- Hobson, N. M., Schroeder, J., Risen, J. L., Xygalatas, D., & Inzlicht, M. (2017). The psychology of rituals: An integrative review and process-based framework.
- Short Summary: Rituals primarily regulate (1) social connection, (2) emotions, and (3) performance goal states. We propose a framework linking the top-down and bottom-up mechanisms behind each of these regulatory functions.
- Schroeder, J., & Fishbach, A. (2015). How to motivate yourself and others? Intended and unintended consequences. Research in Organizational Behavior, 35, 123-141.
- Short Summary: We overview three common motivational strategies and when they backfire: giving feedback, setting goal targets, and applying incentives.
- Waytz, A., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Overlooking others: Dehumanization by comission and omission. Testing Psychometrics Metholodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 251-266.
- Short Summary: We distinguish between two forms of dehumanization, dehumanization by commission (actively and overtly representing others as subhuman) and dehumanization by ommission (more passively overlooking others' mental capacities).
- Waytz, A., Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2014). The lesser minds problem. In Bain, P., Vaes, J., & Leyens, J.P. (Eds.), Humanness and dehumanization (pp. 49-67). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
- Short Summary: A common psychological bias is assuming others have less active and sophisticated mind than we do. We identify three forms of this Lesser Minds Problem and its consequences.
- Epley, N., Schroeder, J., & Waytz, A. (2013). Motivated mind perception: Treating pets as people and people as animals. In Gervais, S. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 60, pp 127-152). Springer: New York.
- Short Summary: We suggest anthropomorphism is guided by two primary motives, the need to explain behavior and the need to connect with others.
- Schroeder, J. (January, 2019). The psychology of division. (Interview).
- Schroeder, J. (June 1, 2017). The paradox of helping: Endorsing for others what we oppose for ourselves. The Behavioral Scientist.
- Schroeder, J., & Fishbach, A. (January 8, 2016). Match your motivational tactic to the situation. Harvard Business Review.
- Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (October 7, 2015). The science of sounding smart. Harvard Business Review.
- Schroeder, J., & Risen, J. L. (August 24, 2014). Peace through friendship. The New York Times.
- Schroeder, J. (February 28, 2014). Could it be her voice? Why Scarlett Johansson's voice makes Samantha seem human. The Psych Report.
- Epley, N., & Schroeder, J. (June 3, 2011). Let's make some Metra noise. Chicago Tribune.