Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: C:\Users\shapiro\Google Drive\Shapiro Stuff\Web Site\shapiro.jpgCARL SHAPIRO

Last Modified: April 2014


Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy, Walter A. Haas School of Business,
University of California at Berkeley

Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley


Carl Shapiro is the Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy in the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley.

Shapiro had the honor of serving as a Member of the Presidentís Council of Economic Advisers during 2011-12. For the two years immediately prior to that, he was the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Economics at the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice; he also held that position during 1995-96. From 1998 to 2008, Shapiro served as Director of the Institute of Business and Economic Research at UC Berkeley.He has been Editor and Co-Editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, among other honors. Shapiro earned his Ph.D. in Economics at M.I.T. in 1981, taught at Princeton University during the 1980s, and has been on the Berkeley faculty since 1990.

Shapiro has published extensively in the areas of industrial organization, competition policy, patents, the economics of innovation, and competitive strategy. His current research interests include competition policy, the economics of innovation, the design and use of patents, housing finance, and energy and environmental economics.

Shapiro is the co-author, with Hal R. Varian, of Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, published by the Harvard Business School Press. Information Rules has received critical acclaim for its application of economic principles to the Information Economy and has been widely read by managers and adopted for classroom use.

Contact Information

E-mail: shapiro-at-Haas-dot-Berkeley-dot-edu
Home Page:

Haas School of Business
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-1900
phone: 510-642-5905

Shapiro Curriculum Vitae

Shapiro Curriculum Vitae in HTML Format

Shapiro Curriculum Vitae in PDF Format

Recent Writings, Speeches and Testimony


Strategic Patent Acquisitions, with Fiona Scott Morton, Antitrust Law Journal.


Activating Actavis, with Aaron Edlin, Scott Hemphill, and Herbert Hovenkamp.

A Simple Approach to Setting Reasonable Royalties for Standard-Essential Patents, with Mark Lemley, Berkeley Technology Law Journal.


Competition and Innovation: Did Arrow Hit the Bullís Eye?, in The Rate & Direction of Economic Activity Revisited, Josh Lerner and Scott Stern, eds.


The 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines: From Hedgehog to Fox in Forty Years, Antitrust Law Journal.

Unilateral Effects Calculations

The Year in Review: Economics at the Antitrust Division: 2009-2010, with Ken Heyer, Review of Industrial Organization.

Injunctions, Hold-Up, and Patent Royalties, American Law and Economics Review.

Recapture, Pass-Through, and Market Definition, with Joseph Farrell, Antitrust Law Journal.

Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition, with Joseph Farrell, B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics: Policies and Perspectives.

Upward Pricing Pressure in Horizontal Merger Analysis: Reply to Epstein and Rubinfeld, with Joseph Farrell, B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics: Policies and Perspectives.

Upward Pricing Pressure and Critical Loss Analysis, with Joseph Farrell, Competition Policy International Antitrust Journal.

In Honor of Oliver Williamson: Antitrust Economics, California Management Review.


The Year in Review: Economics at the Antitrust Division: 2008-2009, with Ken Heyer and Jeffrey Wilder, Review of Industrial Organization.

Updating the Merger Guidelines, ABA Antitrust Section, Fall Forum.

Competition Policy in Distressed Industries, ABA Symposium, Competition as Public Policy.

Microsoft: A Remedial Failure, Antitrust Law Journal.


Detecting and Reversing the Decline in Horizontal Merger Enforcement, with Jonathan Baker, Antitrust.

Merger to Monopoly to Serve a Single Buyer: Comment, with Jonathan Baker and Joseph Farrell, Antitrust Law Journal.

Improving Critical Loss, with Joseph Farrell, Antitrust Source.

Reinvigorating Horizontal Merger Enforcement, with Jonathan Baker, Oxford University Press.

How Strong Are Weak Patents?, with Joseph Farrell, American Economics Review.

Cournot Example

††††††††† 2007

Standard Setting, Patents, and Hold-Up, with Joseph Farrell, John Hayes and Theresa Sullivan, Antitrust Law Journal.

Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution, Innovation Policy and the Economy.

Antitrust, with Louis Kaplow, Chapter 15, in Handbook of Law and Economics, Volume 2.

Patent Hold-Up and Royalty Stacking, with Mark A. Lemley, Texas Law Review.

Reply to Golden

The Design and Use of Patents, IESE-BBVA Prize Lecture, Madrid, Spain.


MarketDefinition in Crude Oil: Estimating the Effects of the BP/Arco Merger, with John Hayes and Robert Town, Antitrust Bulletin.


Prior User Rights, American Economic Review Papers & Proceedings.


Antitrust and Innovation, Testimony Before the Antitrust Modernization Commission.

Exclusionary Conduct, Testimony Before the Antitrust Modernization Commission.

Probabilistic Patents, with Mark A. Lemley, Journal of Economics Perspectives.


Patent System Reform: Economic Analysis and Critique, Berkeley Technology Law Journal.

Further Thoughts on Critical Loss, with Michael L. Katz, Antitrust Source.

The Economics of Information Technology, with Hal R. Varian and Joseph Farrell, Cambridge University Press.


Antitrust Analysis of Patent Settlements Between Rivals, Antitrust Magazine.

Economic Model

Antitrust Limits to Patent Settlements, Rand Journal of Economics.


Critical Loss: Letís Tell the Whole Story, with Michael L. Katz, Antitrust Magazine.

The BP Amoco/ARCO Merger: Alaskan Crude Oil, with Jeremy Bulow, in The Antitrust Revolution.

The FTCís Challenge to Intelís Cross-Licensing Practices, in The Antitrust Revolution.

Figure and Table

2002 and Earlier

Competition Policy and Innovation, Report for the OECD, 2002

Antitrust Policy in the Clinton Administration, with Robert E. Litan, in American Economic Policy in the 1990s, 2002

Charts and Table

Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross Licenses, Patent Pools, and Standard Setting, Innovation Policy and the Economy, 2000

Scale Economies and Synergies in Horizontal Merger Analysis, with Joseph Farrell, Antitrust Law Journal, 2001

Setting Compatibility Standards: Cooperation or Collusion?, in Expanding the Bounds of Intellectual Property, 2001

Trans-Atlantic Divergence in GE/Honeywell: Causes and Lessons, with Donna E. Patterson, Antitrust Magazine, 2001

Competition Policy: A Century of Economic and Legal Thinking, with William Kovacic, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2000

Competition Policy in the Information Economy, in Competition Policy Analysis, 2000

Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, with Hal R. Varian, Harvard Business School Press, 1999

The Art of Standards Wars, with Hal R. Varian, California Management Review, 1999

Exclusivity in Network Industries, George Mason Law Review, 1999

Antitrust in Software Markets, with Michael L. Katz, in Competition, Innovation, and the Microsoft Monopoly, 1999

Versioning: The Smart Way to Sell Information, with Hal R. Varian, Harvard Business Review, 1998

Antitrust Issues in the Licensing of Intellectual Property: The Nine No-Noís Meet the Nineties, with Richard J. Gilbert, Brookings Papers on Economics: Microeconomics, 1997